The sample was drawnfrom a Finnish population. Review of the LiteratureIntroduction to the Literature Literature relevant to the research question investigated is reviewed. This predictive relationship remained true evenafter controlling for the children's baseline aggressiveness, intelligence, and socioeconomic status.
Although 8 , children were killed by guns in the United States from1983 through 1995, "the American public-numbed by decades of television, radio, newspaper, and real-life images of dehumanizing violence-has notresponded to the loss of so many children and teenagers with the samesorrow, anger, or grief as was roused by Vietnam" (Sauter, 1995, p. Downey and Walker (1992) investigated the influence on both depressionand aggression in children of both family-level factors and child-levelfactors. CQ Researcher, 1 19-1 21.
One must, therefore, considerthe possibility that some characteristic of Canadian society moderated thehomicide rate in that country, while characteristics of American societyother than the effects of television contributed to the increase in violentbehavior in that country. Theability to imitate behavior is both useful and necessary for childdevelopment. (199 ). Rates ofaggression did not change in the two control communities between the twoobservations.
This researchquestion is as follows: Is exposure to violent television programming a causal factor indecisions by children to engage in violent behavior? This researchquestion is as follows: Is exposure to violent television programming a causal factor indecisions by children to engage in violent behavior? ...Although public opinion is shifting, legislative moves against guns aredecried as unconstitutional.
Therefore, the effect of television could be isolatedfrom that of other media influences. The inclusion of Canada as a control group precludes thesehypotheses, since Canadians likewise experienced a doubling of homiciderates without involvement in the Vietnam War and without the turbulence ofthe US civil rights movement" (p.
(Ed.). Comstock, G., & Strasburger, V. In the midst of ayouth murder epidemic, a film like Natural Born Killer becomes a nationwidesensation, and its soundtrack blares from teenagers' boom boxes. Why social work should care: Televisionviolence and children.
Control theories, by contrast, hold that all persons havea potential for criminal behavior and that contemporary society afford theopportunity to engage in such behavior. If this were so, it would be expected that, asthe initial television generation grew up, rates of serious violence wouldfirst begin to rise among children, then several years later it would beginto rise among adolescents, then still later among young adults, and so on. And that is what is observed" (Centerwall, 1989a, p.
Ourculture of violence has spawned the children of violence, even childmurderers, and suddenly we seem shocked" (p. (199 ). Young adult suicide and exposure totelevision. Thus, the interactionist model recognizesseveral "points of social entry" (Hochschild, 199 , p. The American Psychological Association reported that the post-traumatic stress that children experience as either victims of or witnessesto violence "includes intrusive imagery, emotional constriction oravoidance, fears of recurrence, sleep difficulties, disinterest insignificant activities, and attention difficulties" ("Violence and Youth,1993, p.
S. Sex, violence, and the media: Theissues. As children get older, they come to a clearer understanding oftelevision programming; however, the earliest and deepest impressions ofthese children are established at an age when they still see television asa factual source of information about the outside world. Albany, New York: State University ofNew York Press, pp. 21).
There is strong support in the literature for the contention thatviewing violent programming on television by children is a prime causalfactor of later episodes of violent behavior on the part of such children. One must consider, however, the possibility that some characteristic ofsociety other than the effects of television contributed to the increase inviolent behavior in that country. (1992).
41). Comstock and Strasburger (199 ) also foundsupport for a hypothesis that exposure to television violence increases thelikelihood of subsequent aggressive and anti-social behavior in childrenand adolescents. Centerwall, B.
While more laws may help and strictenforcement would help even more, new laws are clearly not the answer. Most states already prohibit juveniles from carrying handguns and automaticweapons, but these laws have made little difference in the past. The mean age of the 349 children included in the study was 12.4years at the time of admission to the relevant treatment program.
L. Between 1985 and 1992, the proportion of persons arrested for theoffense of murder who are under the age of 18 years old increased fromapproximately eight-percent to approximately 15 percent (Bureau of JusticeStatistics, 1996). A studyby Centerwall (1993) found that prolonged childhood exposure to television(a minimum of two-years) to be positively related physical aggressivenesslater in a child's life.
Sitarski (1996) holds thattelevision "contributes to a mind-set of violence" (p. & Steinbring, J.
In the minds of young children, television is a source of entirely factual information regarding how theworld works. With respect to female subjects, theresearchers found that the behaviors of fathers and the subject'sperception of the relationship between herself and her father was thestrongest factor influencing aggressive behavior by the subject.
Public communication and behavior. Orlando, Florida: Academic Press Inc., pp.
The average American pre-school child watches more than 27 hours oftelevision each week. Exposure to television as a cause ofviolence.
Television's enhancement of noxiousaggression was entirely general and not limited to a few so called badapples (Williams, 1986). British medical Journal, 31 (6975): 273-274. Centerwall (1989a) found that, in the wake of the introduction oftelevision into the United States, the annual homicide rate for whitesincreased by 93 percent, from 3. Alcoholabuse alone was found to be less important that the abuse of othersubstances as a predictor of aggressive behavior by the children of thesubstance abuser.
Every year since 195 , thenumber of American children gunned down has doubled. Later variations in exposure totelevision during adolescence and adulthood do not exert any additionaleffect on individuals (Hennigan, Del Rosario, Heath, Cook, Wharton, &Calder, 1982). Young children, as a consequence, will imitate any behavior-including behavior that most adults regard asdestructive and antisocial. 26). Researchagendas in the sociology of emotions.
AmericanFamily Physician, 5 (8), 1636-1641. Sauter (1995) also pointed-out that most "observers agree that theeasy availability of firearms is clearly a contributing factor to theunacceptable level of youth murder that haunts our communities. Centerwall (1989a) also found that, in the wake of the introduction oftelevision into the United States, the annual homicide rate for whitesincreased by 93 percent, from 3. By contrast, the rate of aggression among children in thetarget community increased 16 percent.
A. 46). (1993). Pretoria, South Africa: Government Printer.
143). Parental substance abuse andits relationship to severe aggression and antisocial behavior in youth. American Journal on Addictions, 2(1), 48-58.
Herzberger and Hall (1993) compared the effects of expected (bychildren) parental reactions to aggressive retaliation by children againstboth siblings and peers as an inhibitor of such behavior. Orlando, Florida: Academic Press, pp.139-171. While children have an instinctive desire to imitate, however, children do not possess an instinct for determining whether aspecific behavior should be imitated.
The findings of the literature review are presented in discussions relatedto (1) the effects of early viewing habits, (2) violent televisionprogramming, violent behavior, and time spent watching television, (3)studies involving children with delayed and limited access to television, and (4) television violent, and violence as a learned behavior. Early Viewing Habits In a study conducted from 196 to 1981, 875 children living in a semi-rural United States county were tracked (Eron & Huesmann, 1984). These findings also illustrated, however, that all violence is not learned by children through television viewing.
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