Sample essay topic, essay writing: The New Hypothesis For The Origin And Evolution Of The - 1996 words
It is impossible to briefly run through all the problems of a hypothesis advanced, so only its main assumptions almost unsupportable by factual evidence are given in the present paper. In my opinion, the hypothesis as a whole is provable. It can partly be proved by knowledge of today and expected in the future.1. The Origin and the Structure of our Universe I suppose that the Universe we can observe and cognize consists of self-developing hierarchically co-subordinate and genetically relative systems of cosmic bodies. Each of the systems is distinguished by the qualitative state of substance composing its bodies but main evolution mechanisms are common to all the systems. What is common to all the systems? The central most massive body of every system is a parental body for its younger members. The central massive body of every system at intervals conceives in its interiors new cosmic bodies to put them into initial (circum-parental) orbits.
In other words, the central body of every system stimulates newborn bodies to move under their own momentum (along a straight line) and to rotate about its axis due to its own gravitational attraction force. But the central gravitating body constantly and intensely loses its mass (photon and corpuscular). So, the orbits of newborn bodies are (must be) spiral-like rather than closed due to the law of universal gravitation. It means that newborn bodies move away from their parental body that is every system expands. It should be noted that every cosmic body is imponderable, i. e. it undergoes gravitational interaction with other bodies. What is the cause? The cause is that imponderability is provided by a certain orbital rate of the body controlled by the law of universal gravitation
The rate depends on radius of the body orbit relative to the system's central body: the more is the orbit radius, the less orbital rate the body needs to be imponderable. It can be seen from the motion of the Solar System's planets, satellites of giant planets and from the Earth's artificial satellites launched by man. The motion of both artificial satellites and cosmic bodies is governed by the same laws. I suppose that our Universe consists of hierarchically relative systems as follows:The first system: the Origin - the central gravitating body of our Universe, and its born nuclei of super-galaxies (the Origin is not considered in the present work).The second system: nuclei of super-galaxies and their born nuclei of galaxies. The third system: nuclei of galaxies and their born stars. The fourth system: stars and their born planets including giant planets, comets, meteorites. The fifth system: giant planets and their born satellites, comets, meteorites. One specific feature of the system hierarchy should be noted. The central parental body of every system mentioned has its own sphere of gravity response predetermined by its mass. Radius of the Earth's gravity response sphere is known to be 930 thous km.
The Sun and the Earth show nearly equal gravity response to interplanetary stations at the boundary of this sphere. If a station comes out of the sphere of the radius mentioned, it is already subject to gravity response of the Sun. The Sun, with its own sphere of gravity response to planets is, in its turn, involved into the sphere of gravity response of the Milky Way Galaxy's nucleus, etc. It should be noted that systemic structure of the Universe (not the origin of systems) was suggested as early as the mid-18th century by Immanuel Kant and Johan Lambert independently of each other. So I as if turn back to the past but do not consider this a regress. Why? Because this idea of our Universe provides explanation for many problems which could not be explained by a non-systemic relativistic model of the expanding Universe best known as Big-Bang Model.2.
Formation Mechanism of Cosmic Bodies Gravitational forces are commonly used by theorists to construct condensation or accretion models of the formation of cosmic bodies (galaxies, stars, planets). It should be admitted, that gravitation is incapable of producing cosmic bodies if the law of universal gravitation holds. An idea that gravitation can produce the Earth's sphere was called into question as long ago as by Newton. He proved that gravitational forces are zero in the center of any homogeneous sphere and so he found no reasons for the planet sphere embryo to be formed. Moreover, Newton stated that pressure was also zero in the center of any homogeneous sphere. From this follows that the temperature cannot be high in the sphere center since precisely gravitation and pressure are responsible for the substance to be heated in nuclei of any cosmic body, that is inferred from theoretic models presently available. So, I suppose that nearly all (exceptions exist) cosmic bodies (giant planets satellites, planets, stars, etc.) were conceived and formed in plasma of their parents by electromagnetic forces, and mechanism of their origin was controlled by such features of plasma as the state ofsubstance. Plasma is known to be ionized gas containing nearly equal amounts of positively and negatively charged particles. Apart from the charge, free and randomly moving in plasma particles have intrinsic magnetic moment and turning moment (spin).
Plasma is characterized by high electric conductivity, intense interaction with the external magnetic field and can be controlled by the latter with ease. It should be noted that charged particles building up plasma of stars, nuclei of galaxies, super-galaxies and of the Origin must differ qualitatively. In general case their energies must increase (approx. 1000 times) in each hierarchically elder sphere. In this connection I suppose that in some volume of plasma of the parental body, under the action of its powerful, probably focused magnetic field, spins of all charged particles as magnetic arrows begin showing common direction reversed to the external magnetic field. As a result, the random thermal motion of particles stops (temperature of plasma decreases) and differently charged particles under the Coulomb's forces are combined to produce dipole pairs which then are united into a sphere by rapid chain reaction. Why into a sphere? Because the interaction force of two dipole systems (dipole pairs) is in direct proportion to the product of dipole moments and in inverse proportion to the cube of their interspaces. F=d1 . d2 / r3The sphere volume is known to be also in proportion to the cube of its radius, i. e. dipole pairs under electric gravity forces can produce only a sphere. Particles produce a sphere of solid substance with a common crystal lattice.
But in this case, the newly formed sphere as a system of linked particles takes turning and magnetic moments from all the particles away according to the law of conservation of angular momentum and starts rotating about its axis. Thereby, the sphere generates its own magnetic field reversed to the external magnetic field. This explains the problem: why do all cosmic bodies (planets, stars, etc.) rotate about their axes and have magnetic fields. Moreover, it is very important and really new solid substance of the newborn sphere must show temperature of absolute zero (-273C) or about. Why? Because substances of such low temperatures possess a number of properties (superconductivity, non-magnetization, steady electric currents producing one more magnetic field can be induced in its surficial layer by the external magnetic field) which allow them to survive high temperatures of plasma. So, we obtained the fast-rotating sphere consisting of dense solid substance of temperature close to absolute zero, which has a thick magnetic sphere reversed to the external magnetic field.
Due to the latter fact the sphere is at 'suspended' state and protected from temperature attack of plasma. A possibility of this supposition to be realized in nature has been supported by laboratory tests. A solid substance of temperature close to absolute zero was obtained from neutral gas by a method of laser rate deceleration of its constituent atoms. Physical tests showed that a superconductive sphere may be suspended over superconductor with steady current if the weight of the sphere is balanced by repulsive forces of opposing magnetic fields of the bodies mentioned. However, I think that the total sphere of a cosmic body (planet, star or galaxy nucleus) cannot be formed from a single-act fast chain reaction of dipole pair linkage. It would not agree with the evolution laws. The evolution implies that any process is prolonged. The sphere described above is only the embryio of a cosmic body, which is intermittenly covered by new layers of the solid substance of temperature close to absolute zero. The proposed regulation mechanism of intermittent coverage of the embryo by new layers is governed by the capability of most of the cosmic bodies to reverse periodically their magnetic field polarity. Suppose, that magnetic field of the parental body reverses its direction.
The embryo with magnetic field always reversed to the external one must turn over from 'up' to 'down' position. Then the embryo is covered by new layer of dense superconductive substance. But in this case, 'congealed' spins of dipole pairs of new layer are to be reversed to spins of embryonic dipoles. Then these actions recur every new inversion of the parental body's magnetic field. It is important that 'congealed' spins of dipoles from every overlayer will be reversed to those from the underlayer.
How long can cycles of the sphere coverage recur? I think that they can recur for as long as electromagnetic forces of the parental body are capable of controlling over the embryo. As the embryo increases in size, its electromagnetic forces and forces of the parental body level off. Since this moment the embryo becomes mature and is no longer covered. It follows herefrom that the more are absolute values of electromagnetic forces of parental bodies, the more are masses of newborn cosmic bodies. Parental bodies do have possibilities to put into orbits their newborn cosmic bodies. Observations show that huge single-act energy release with ejection of a great body of substance into the space occur in stars and nuclei of active galaxies. And what is ahead of cosmic bodies put into the orbit? I suppose that they decompose to form plasma again. Decomposition proceeds slowly like of unstable radioactive chemical elements, and with heat release. It proceeds layer-by-layer: first turned into plasma is the upper layer, then the underlayer, etc; the substance of the sphere nucleus remaining solid at temperature close to absolute zero. It is important that decomposition of every next layer of the sphere is accompanied by inversion of its magnetic field.
As it was noted, spins of dipole pairs always show reversed direction in adjoining congealed layers, and their orientation is finally responsible for the direction of the sphere magneticfield. When the solid congealed sphere nucleus is covered by a fairly thick layer of high-temperature plasma, the new cosmic body gains the capacity to produce the next generation of cosmic bodies. In conclusion, I would like to explain why the substance in nuclei of all cosmic bodies is supposed to be of temperature close to absolute zero. Because at this temperature entropy becomes zero and thermodynamic systems of cosmic bodies are stable. It is this fact that provides their prolonged existence (billions years). All evolutionary changes of matter occur mainly in surficial layers of cosmic bodies where temperatures are contrast (positive and negative). If high temperatures (millions degrees) occur in nuclei of cosmic bodies, they would not be stable according to the law of increasing entropy (the second law of thermodynamics).3. The origin, life and death of starsAll stars were born in plasma of galactic nuclei and put by them into initial orbits as a dense layered neutron sphere fast-rotating about its axis and showing temperature close to absolute zero in the nucleus.
Stars spiral away from the galactic nucleus, i. e. star systems expand. First-born stars are now at the periphery of the galaxy, the recent ones - close to its center. Stars derive energy from decomposition of neutron into proton and electron with en...
Research paper and essay writing, free essay topics, sample works The New Hypothesis For The Origin And Evolution Of The