Risks And Responsibilities Of

Sample essay topic, essay writing: Risks And Responsibilities Of - 2417 words

.. he pool deck is a hazard. Any risk management program would include keeping the deck clear of obstructions. The American Red Cross (1988) states that all rescue and first aid equipment should inspected on a regular basis. This equipment should also be easily accessible.

Any piece of equipment that is found to be damaged in any way should be removed, repaired or replaced immediately. Following an emergency, all equipment that is used should be replaced promptly. Other areas should also be checked on a regular basis, such as the showers, locker rooms and restrooms which should be kept clean and hazard free. Coaches are also responsible for taking all necessary measures to ensure that all equipment used by their swimmers is of an adequate standard. This issue is far more critical in a contact sport such as football where inadequate padding may lead to serious injury. Chemicals Anyone working with chlorine should wear protective clothing such as gloves, goggles and clothing covering the rest of the body to minimize the risks of chlorine coming in contact with the naked flesh. Chlorine can enter the blood via absorption through the skin. Direct contact with the eyes can cause severe injuries

The American Red Cross (1995) terms chemical hazards as harmful or potentially harmful substances in and around the pool. Storage areas of chemicals should be clearly marked hence warning both staff and patrons of possible dangers. The doors to such storage areas should be kept locked. Any suspicious odors in these regions should be reported immediately. The American Red Cross (1992) recommend storing all chemicals and chemical testing kits in child proof containers and out of children's reach. Entry Into The Pool Every year many individuals are injured from diving related injuries.

These injuries are usually caused by collisions with the bottom and sides of the pool. Thus it is of paramount importance that coaches and instructors take all precautions to prevent such injuries form occurring. Diving should not be taught unless all necessary safety equipment in readily available such as a back board and staff trained in spinal injury management are present. Coaches should make sure that all swimmers are educated in the obvious safety precautions. Never dive when someone else is in the water in front of you.

All dives should be of a flat nature. All swimmers should enter the water fingers first and not head first, thus helping to cushioning the blow should the swimmer crash into the floor if the pool. Never hold or position objects in the pool. A great example as to why it important to keep the diving area clear of obstructions is given by the American Red Cross (1992), which referred to the case Bill Brooks. One day, he dived into a pool and hit his head on an inner tube. He could remember laying face down in the water and being unable to move.

Brooks, who once played college baseball, is now a C5 quadriplegic and will never walk again. The best protection against possible injuries is an informed, safety-conscious swimmer. The Certified Pool Operator (Fall 1997) stated that in a typical year there are about 400 events that result in a quadriplegic injury in aquatic environments. According to the CPO, a quarter of these occurred in pools. The article went onto explain that 95% of the pool related injuries occurred in the shallow ends of pools. Through careful supervision and prudent coaching, swimmers can be educated as to safe methods of entry into shallow water.

The Swimming Times (1997) suggests that the depth of the water should be taken into account in relation to the ability and height of the pupils. Hence, none swimmers should not be taught in water that is ten feet deep and likewise, competitive swimmers should not be coached in shallow water. McCaskey and Biedzynski (1996) swimming incident rates come be totally eliminated if swimmers did not use racing dives into shallow water during practice or meets. According to McCaskey and Biedzynski, there has not been a direct injury in college swimming since a non-fatal one in 1982. Spinal Injuries The American Red Cross (1995) reveals that sports related injuries account for 13% of all spinal injuries. These figures were derived from the National Spinal Cord Injuries Data Base. According to the American Red Cross, about 1000 people each year suffer spinal injuries from diving mishaps.

The American Red Cross suggests the following ways to help prevent the occurrence of such injuries. The water depth should always be ascertained before entering. Only trained swimmers should be using the starting blocks. Coaches should be aware of these aspects and make sure they correctly supervise their swimmers during warm ups at competitions and at practice. All these measures mentioned so far in the paper appear to be obvious, but unless they are adhered to tightly then mishaps can occur.

It is not worth gambling with your swimmers' health. If a suspected spinal injury occurs, then the area must be stabilized and immobilized. There are certain situations when a spinal injury must always be assumed to have occurred. It is always better to be safe than sorry. If proper precautions are not taken when caring for injured victims, then that lack of risk management leaves the coach and facility open to legal action. A spinal injury should be assumed for any injury involving a diving board, diving into shallow water, a fall from a height greater than that of the victim's height.

Also any visible bumps or depressions to the head, altered consciousness or complaints of back or neck pain from the victim. In some cases, the victim may be face down in the water. Although, the victim should be moved as little as possible following a suspected spinal injury, in this situation, the victim needs to be removed form the water. If the victim is not removed, drowning will take place, the heart will stop and soon there after, brain damage will occur. The American Red Cross First Aid Manual (1993) explains that head injuries can rupture blood vessels in the brain causing pressure to build up leading to brain damage. The American Red Cross (1992) describes the typical recipient of a diving injury as a first time visitor to a location, not warned by a sign about the potential dangers, when lifeguards were not present and the water depth was less than four feet deep.

Any good risk management program could dramatically reduce the risk of this kind of injury. By having vigilant lifeguards, water depths clearly marked and no diving signs clearly posted on the deck, most of the risk can be reduced. These are all components of a well rounded risk management program. Since most spinal injuries occur when a person dives into water less than five feet deep, on arriving at a pool, a coach should check the poolside for all relevant safety warnings and make his swimmers aware of this risks. The facility staff should also be highly alert at all times. Emergency Action Plan All pools should have an emergency action plan.

The EAP should explain exactly what procedure should be followed in the event of an aquatic emergency. The initiation of the EAP is the responsibility of the lifeguard. A typical signal to all pool patrons and staff is three long blows of a whistle. This would draw the attentions of the other pool patrons and then they would be more easily removed from the water for the protection of the victim. Also, other staff members throughout the building would be alerted of the EAP being activated.

The next stage is to begin whatever rescue or emergency action that needs to be taken. After determining the nature and extent of the emergency, another lifeguard or staff member will call the police, fire or rescue squad as necessary. The emergency number is usually 911 but may vary from area to area. If the pool a which you coach is in a new area, it is your responsibility to make sure that you are fully aware of the number to call in the event of an emergency. The required first aid should be continued be given to the victim until advanced medical care arrives.

Once care is commenced, it cannot be withdrawn, if it is, this constitutes abandonment which is a liable situation. Once advanced medical care arrives, all necessary accident reports are filled and the aid in crowd control. More often than not, only one person is designated as the spokesperson for a facility. This person and this person only is allowed to talk to anyone except for the police and the rescue squad. The Institute of Swimming Teachers and Coaches (April 1997) explains that whether or not a pool operator believes that his pool is a high or low risk facility, it is essential to have an emergency action plan. According to the ISTC, an emergency is anything considered to of danger to a bather or employee.

The following all come under that general description. Overcrowding is a situation where too many people are in a confined area. This could be fatal in a swimming pool. A good risk management program would outline maximum numbers for a pool. These levels would be set well below that of over crowding, hopefully eliminating this risk.

Disorderly behavior is also a common cause of emergencies. With vigilant surveillance and firm enforcing of pool rules and regulations, this too could be eliminated as a risk. Lack of water clarity will occur when the chemical levels in pool be out of balance. This too is a liability. If a child dives into water which he assumes to be deep but is in fact shallow, this could lead to a lawsuit.

Especially because of the fact that the water clarity may have directly affected that child's judgement. The ISTC explains that as a coach, it is your responsibility to know how to raise the alarm, how to get help form other staff members, how to initiate the appropriate rescue, who should summon the emergency services and so on. Qualified lifeguards are trained to act as a team in the case of an emergency, thus it is crucial for a coach or instructor to be able to contribute positively to an emergency situation. The Institute of Swimming Teachers and Coaches (May 1997) states that teachers and coaches must be trained in what to do in the case of an emergency and in turn should make the pupils understand and be aware of the procedures involved in the EAP. The pupils needs to know where to congregate in case of an emergency and possibly if they will be required to stand near a particular doorway to attract the attention of the advanced medical care when it arrives. The Institute of Swimming Teachers and Coaches (1996) stated that 93% of the schools in a survey had a formal emergency action plan.

Two schools stated that they did not have one. Most of the schools in this survey had had swimming as part of their curriculum for more than six years. Coaches and other facility staff should go through regular in service days to rehearse emergency procedures. The emergency action plan should be rehearsed most importantly. For this procedure is what could make the difference between life and death for a victim.

In service training should cover the following points: review the potential hazards at the facility, review and update rules and regulations, practice the emergency action plan, practice rescue skills, carry out physical conditioning. Accident Reports Following an emergency, an accident report needs be filled out by the members of staff involved. The facility information such as address and phone number. Personal data of the injured party should also be included: name, age, sex, address. The location of the incident should be included as well as the a description of the incident. It is very important to include what care was provided; was medical attention welcomed by the victim or refused? All of these issues are very important as law suits are far too prevalent in this day and age. Remember, consent must be obtained from the victim. To obtain this, the care provider must identify himself to the victim, give his level of training, explain what he thinks is wrong and then explain what he plans to do.

If the victim refuses care, the care provider must try to convince the victim to receive care. According to the American Red Cross (1993), record keeping is nearly as important as the actual care given. The record is a legal document and is vital if legal action is taken. Summary Risk management is an important function of a sport program. A coach should be fully aware of all legal and ethical responsibilities that come with his position.

Any form of negligence on his or her behalf resulting in increased risks of injury can lead to the increased chances of legal action. Risk management is not only concerned with limiting the chance of injuries being suffered but also reducing the chances of financial losses following such an incident. Coaches' Quarterly (1998) states that effective in 1998, all United States Swimming coaches must have the following qualifications: Safety Training for Swim Coaches, First Aid and CPR. The Certified Pool Operator (1997) blames the individuals for their careless behavior. According to the article, pools are becoming safer.

The main reasons for injuries today are victim's carelessness. In a perfect world no one would need to know rescue techniques. Everyone would be careful, and safety would not be a problem. But ours is not a perfect world. Because of dangerous situations, careless or carefree people, and changing water conditions, many dangers are in and around water.

Risk management in a pool environment is basically concerned with aquatic injury prevention. A highly developed risk management program will substantially reduce the risks of injury. By understanding how injuries are caused, one can better prevent them. Effective communication with patrons is critical for helping to prevent injuries. Through this communication, the patrons can have fun in a safer environment. ReferencesAmerican Red Cross (1993). Community First Aid & Safety.

Mosby Lifeline, St. Louis. (pg. 184)American Red Cross (1993). CPR For The Professional Rescuer. Mosby Lifeline, St. Louis.

(pg. 10)American Red Cross (1995). Lifeguarding Today. Mosby Lifeline, St. Louis.(pp. 44-204)American Red Cross (1988). Safety Training For Swim Coaches.

Mosby Lifeline, St. Louis. (pg. 26)American Red Cross ( 1992). Swimming & Diving. Mosby Lifeline, St. Louis.

(pp. 33-317)Berger, M. & Middleton, J. (1996). Head Injury: Some Consequences For Injured School Pupils, Their Teachers And Schools. The Partnership, Southampton.

(pg. 3)Bucher, C. A. & Krotee, M. A. (1998). Management of Physical Educ.

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