Reverse Discrimination – Сustom Literature essay

Sample essay topic, essay writing: Reverse Discrimination - 1036 words

Reverse discriminationAffirmative action is not the source of discrimination, but the vehicle for removing the effects of discrimination. The Labor Department report found less than 100 reverse discrimination cases among more than 3,000 discrimination opinions by the U. S. District Court and the Court of Appeal between 1990 and 1994. Discrimination was established in only six cases. The report found that, "Many of the cases were the result of a disappointed applicant... erroneously assuming that when a woman or minority got the job, it was because of race or sex, not qualifications."(SF Chronicle, March 31, 1995) Job discrimination is grounded in prejudice and exclusion, whereas affirmative action is an effort to overcome prejudicial treatment through inclusion. The most effective way to cure society of exclusionary practices is to make special efforts at inclusion, which is exactly what affirmative action does.

Violates the principle of meritBecause we still don't have equal opportunity. Affirmative action, though initially created to redress the consequences of slavery and segregation, must also serve to stem the effects of continuing discrimination against women as well as people of color. The selection of unqualified candidates is not permitted under federal affirmative action guidelines and should not be equated with legal forms of affirmative action. There is a mandate that in choosing a person of color when past discrimination has resulted in white people receiving preferential treatment. Most jobs are found by word-of-mouth. Since neighborhoods tend to be more segregrated word of mouth leads to the perpetuation of discrimation, intentionally or not. Affirmative action pushes employers to try harder, to cast wider net

Does affirmative action mean quotas? No. Affirmative action plans do not impose quota; they simply seek to increase the pool of qualified applicants by using aggressive recruitment and outreach programs, setting goals and timetables and establishing training programs, among other measures. In 1976, Allan Bakke sued the University of California Medical School at Davis for denying his admission on the basis of reverse discrimination, because 16 out of 100 places in the medical school class were reserved for "economically and educationally disadvantage applicants." The Supreme Court ruled in favor of Bakke, holding that the policy of reserving specified slots was a quota system and illegal. However, the Court also held that race could be included as a factor in determining admission, as long as it was not the exclusive basis on which a decision was made. Why should white women care about affirmative action? Women, in general, have been the main beneficiaries of affirmative action. The number of women entering profession has increased substantially. Women tend to work in a narrow range of low paying, low-status jobs. Women occupy 44 percent of all federal jobs but only13 percent of the top jobs according to The Feminist Majority, March 14, 1995.Affirmative action stigmatize people of color Stereotypes plagues people of color and would continue to do even if this policy was eliminated.

Now people of color are stigmatized by being told, "The only reason you're here is because of affirmative action." So they are faced with the constant need to prove that they are qualified. Why don't we change affirmative action to policies that help people based on economic need instead of race of gender? This approach would benefit people of color who are disadvantaged economically. People of color have been discriminated against based entirely on race for hundreds of years. Therefore, policies to eliminate discrimination must address the issue of race. We need programs based on economic need in addition to, but not instead of, affirmative action. Tests are inadequateMany tests are inadequate to predict success. Numerous studies have found that there is only a slight relationship between test scores and performance or professional achievement.

Regarding college admissions, tests are culturally biased in that they tend to reflect the experience of middle class students and their access to higher quality education than that available to less advantage students. Violates principles of compensatory justiceAffirmative action is not an attempt to make up for slavery, it is an attempt to correct today's discrimination against minorities and women in our society. Affirmative action policies address and redress systematic economic and political discrimination against any group of people that are underrepresented or have a history of being discriminated against in particular institutions. Beneficiaries of these programs have included white men and women, people with disabilities, and poor and working class people, but their primary emphasis has been on addressing racial discrimination. Specific white people may not get the specific job opportunity because of affirmative action policies and may suffer as a result. This lack of opportunity is unfortunate; the structural factors which produce a lack of decent jobs needs to be addressed.

Harms it's intended beneficiaries A more careful analysis reveals that affirmative action programs have benefited substantial numbers of poor and working class people of color. Access to job training programs, vocational school, and semi-skilled and skilled blue - collar, pink-collar, police and firefighter has increased substantially through affirmative action programs. Even in the professions, many people of color who have benefited from affirmative action have been form families of low income and job status. Does affirmative action benefit society as a whole? Yes. Having a truly democratic and just society demands it because racism, sexism and all discrimination tear at the very fabric of society. A nation that seeks to maintain privilege "abandons its soul..because so many people are excluded from the possibility of decent lives and from any sense of community with the rest of society."(Roger Wilkins, The Nation, March 27, 1995) Private corporations have embraced affirmative action, knowing that it is good business to have a work force that reflects the demographics of the community. "Equal opportunity, affirmative action and diversity programs have been indispensable both to our educational mission and to our ability to achieve a diversified community of learning. The only way to create a color-blind society is to adopt color-blind policies. Although this statement sounds intuitively plausible, the reality is that color-blind policies often put racial minorities at a disadvantage.

For instance, all else being equal, color-blind seniority systems tend to protect White workers against job layoffs, because senior employees are usually White (Ezorsky, 1991). Likewise, color-blind college admissions favor White students because of their earlier educational advantages. Unless preexisting inequities...

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