PRESIDENT JERRY RAWLINGS OF GHANA. PRESIDENT JERRY RAWLINGS OF GHANA. Term Paper ID:26529 Essay Subject: Military & political career of leader of African nation off & on since 1979.... 4 Pages / 900 Words 5 sources, 7 Citations, TURABIAN Format 16.00 Paper Abstract: Military & political career of leader of African nation off & on since 1979.
Paper Introduction: Jerry Rawlings is a Ghanaian military and political leader who led the coup that ousted the military junta in 1979. At the time, he stepped aside to allow a civilian president, Hilla Limann, to govern, but in December 1981, Rawlings deposed Limann and suspended the constitution, banned all political parties, and later introduced economic reforms in 1983 that helped revive the economy. He won a free presidential election in 1992 and again in 1996. Ghana had been under military rule for some time, subject to military coups such as that in 1972 under the leadership of Colonel Achaempong.
The people resisted from time to time when food shortages became acute, and the government would retaliate with considerable brutality. In May 1979, Flight Lieutenant Jerry Rawlings demanded a confrontation between officers and men Hilla Limann was madethe new President, but he was not happy with his post because of the greatpopularity of Rawlings. In December 1996, the election gave Rawlings a further presidential termand renewed his NDC's majority in the parliament ("Factfile"www. vso.
Org. uk). In the period immediately after the creation of the AFRC, the groupmade it clear that it saw the former leadership as having failed to beaccountable to the people. The administration of Hilla Limann was thusexpected to measure up to the new standard of accountability advocated bythe AFRC.
Limannfought back by accusing Rawlings of attempting to subvert constitutionalrule, leading to another take-over by the Armed Forces RevolutionaryCouncil. Rawlings was court martialled after he denounced the militaryleadership, but his challenge captured the imagination of the populace, leading a week or so later to an uprising of the junior ranks against theirsuperiors. Members of the Trade Union Congress wereangered when the PNDC ordered them to withdraw demands for increased wages.
The National Union of Ghanaian Students (NUGS) called on the government tohand over power to the attorney general, who would supervise new elections. Even though it had military connections, the PNDC made itclear that it was unlike other soldier-led governments, as seen immediatelyby the appointment of fifteen civilians to cabinet positions. Rawlings came to power as leader in 1982, and the first governmentlasted until 1987 as the Provisional National Defense Council (PNDC).
Still, there was opposition to the new government, notably fromformer PNP and PFP members who argued that the Third Republic had not beengiven time to prove itself and that the PNDC administration wasunconstitutional. http: //dialspace. dial. pipex. com/icpubs/na/oct98/naaa1 2.
Htm. Rawlings createdthe Armed Forces Revolutionary Council (AFRC), which after the generalelections was handed over to a civilian government.
What he wanted was to "restore human dignity to Ghanaians"("Ghana" lcweb2.loc. gov). 68 (1998).
Rawlings was now the de facto leader of Ghana ("Ghana Index"www. africanet. com). This would leadeventually to the elections of 1992 ("Ghana" lcweb2.
Loc. gov). In a radiobroadcast on January 5, 1982, Rawlings stated that he had no intention ofimposing himself on Ghanaians and that instead he "wanted a chance for thepeople, farmers, workers, soldiers, the rich and the poor, to be part ofthe decision-making process." He described the two years since the AFRChad handed over power to a civilian government as a period of regressionduring which political parties attempted to divide the people in order torule them.
The National Commission for Democracy (NCD) had existed as an agencyof the PNDC since 1982, but it was not until September 1984 thatorganization was charged with moving the nation in a new politicaldirection. Works Cited"Factfile." Orbit No.
By the end of June 1982, an attempted coup was discovered, and thoseimplicated were executed. The mostimmediate threat to the Limann administration was the AFRC, especiallythose officers who organized themselves into the "June 4 Movement" tomonitor the civilian administration, which is why the government orderedRawlings and several other army and police officers associated with theAFRC into retirement.
"Urban Voters Thwart Rawlings' Third Term." Inter Press Service English News Wire (April 1, 1999)."Who Will Succeed Rawlings?" Around Africa (October 1998). Limann's People's National Party (PNP) began the Third Republicwith control of only 71 of the 14 legislative seats--the oppositionPopular Front Party (PFP) won 42 seats, while 26 seats were distributedamong three lesser parties.
The new governmentimmediately began a major house cleaning operation, including the executionby firing squad of General Achaempong, among others. In May 1979,Flight Lieutenant Jerry Rawlings demanded a confrontation between officersand men with the intention of eliminating those responsible for the growingcorruption. Ghana had been under military rule for some time, subject to militarycoups such as that in 1972 under the leadership of Colonel Achaempong.
This was the beginning of the Provisional NationalDefence Council (NDC) military government, which lasted from 1981 to 1992.The NDC then won 58 percent of the vote in the 1992 presidential elections. Other opposition came from the Ghana Bar Association(GBA), which criticized the government's use of people's tribunals in theadministration of justice. Rawlings more recently was repudiated by the electorate on a vote toamend the constitution to allow Rawlings to run for a third term in officedrove (Machipisa). Thisgovernment was the eighth in the fifteen years since the fall of Nkrumah.
Its membership included Rawlings as chairman, Brigadier Joseph Nunoo-Mensah(whom Limann had dismissed as army commander), two other officers, andthree civilians. State Department, http://lcweb2.
"Ghana Index." http://www. africanet. com/africanet/ country/ghana/home. htm#History.
Machipisa, Lewis. This clearly proved ineffective as the economycontinued its decline ("Ghana and the Rawlings Era"). At the time, he steppedaside to allow a civilian president, Hilla Limann, to govern, but inDecember 1981, Rawlings deposed Limann and suspended the constitution, banned all political parties, and later introduced economic reforms in 1983that helped revive the economy. As a result, Rawlings was released and taken to theBroadcasting House, where he announced that the junior ranks of the armywere to take over the government and promised that the people responsiblefor the country's bankruptcy would be brought to trial. http://www.
Vso. org. uk/pubs/ orbit/68/factfile. htm.
"Ghana." Ghana: A Country Study. He also caused an uproarwhen he suggested that his Vice President, Professor John Atta Mills, should succeed him when his term expires in the year 2 ("Who WillSucceed Rawlings?"). Limann was a former diplomat and anoncharismatic figure with no personal following, and the ruling PNPincluded people of conflicting ideological orientations. He won a free presidential election in1992 and again in 1996.
U. S. Thepeople resisted from time to time when food shortages became acute, and thegovernment would retaliate with considerable brutality.
Many opponents were driven into exile, where theybegan organizing their opposition, accusing the government of human rightsabuses and political intimidation ("Ghana" lcweb2.loc. gov).
Limann tried to harass Rawlings' friends andmeddle with the constitution and composition of the High Court, whichcaused Rawlings to warn the people about a possible slide backward. According to its mandate, the NCD was to devise a viabledemocratic system, utilizing public discussions. Jerry Rawlings is a Ghanaian military and political leader who ledthe coup that ousted the military junta in 1979.