Organized crime in sports-1 – Сustom Literature essay

ORGANIZED CRIME IN SPORTS. ORGANIZED CRIME IN SPORTS.  Term Paper ID:29095 Essay Subject: Problem of illegal gambling.... 7 Pages / 1575 Words 8 sources, 12 Citations, APA Format 28.00 Paper Abstract: Problem of illegal gambling.

History and scope of the problem; professional and college athletics. Organized crime control. Involvement of various ethnic crime gangs. Types of wagering. U.

S. Congressional investigation of gambling on amateur sports events. Questions whether betting on collegiate, amateur and Olympic sports can be banned.Paper Introduction: Organized Crime in Sports Introduction “If there’s competition involved, you can bet that you can bet on it” is a quote from Henry J.

Hyde (R, Ill). Hyde is chairman of the United States House of Representatives and Chairman of the committee investigating College Sports Gambling explained the problem facing amateur athletics in the United States (Hyde schedules, 2000, Online). However, gambling on amateur sports events is the tip of the iceberg (Noll & Zimbalist, 1997).

Depending on which source you feel can be the most trusted, illegal gambling in the United States involves 80 billion to 580 billion annually. Most evidence points to the involvement of Organized Crime’s involvement in this situation, but, contrary to popular In 1972, mobster Bobby Byrne, in exchangefor testimony concerning Mafia control of horse racing pointed out that theGambino family primarily controlled horse racing, and that fixes could onlybe placed with Mob consent. Sports, Jobs, and Taxes: TheEconomic Impact of Sports Teams and Stadiums, Washington, DC: Brookings. One major strip casino, the Tropicana, said that in the year 2 , bettingon amateur events accounted for 33 percent of its book revenue.

These organizations violate national sovereignty, undermine democratic institutions even in states where these institutions are well established, threaten the process of democratization and privatization in states in transition and add a new dimension to problems such as nuclear proliferation and terrorism. Depending on which source you feel can be the most trusted, illegalgambling in the United States involves 8 billion to 58 billionannually. The Nevada Gaming Commission reports that sportswagering in these books averages between 2 billion to 3 billion per year. Who did what?

In 1997, the gambling industry's gross revenues totaled nearly 51 billion, up from 1 .4 billion only 15 years before. 1973.

Don't bet on it: Therepresentation of gambling in baseball cinema, The Southern CommunicationJournal, 342-356. Asinof, E.; Gould, S. J. Organized Crime in Sports(racing).

(Asinof & Gould, 2 , iv) An even older form of Mob-connected organized control of sportsbetting involves horse racing. Abadinsky (1999) talks ofseveral governors who lost their jobs in part because of their perceivedopposition to lotteries and other forms of wagering.

92d Congress, 2d Session. Sports wagering conflicts with its responsibility to preserve the integrity of competition and the positive image of college sports, so the NCAA is taking a lead role to legislate, educate, and raise awareness about college athletes and sports wagering.

Will it keep out organized crime? The first American sport that was the object of illegalgambling connected with organized crime is baseball. Sports wagering has the potential toundermine the integrity of sports contests and jeopardize the eligibilityof student-athletes, and we will do everything we can to send the messagethat sports wagering has no place in college sports,"("Hyde Schedules."2 , Online).

In 1867, for example, a long editorial in Harper's Weekly pointed outthat betting was common practice and warned that even "the most respectableclubs" not only participated in the wagering but also in the fixing of theoutcome of games "for the benefit of gamblers" (Marshall & Rudd, 1996,344). The Arizona Stateand Northwestern University point-shaving scandals involved heavy bettingby the participants with Nevada Sports books" (Hyde schedules, 2 ,Online).

(1999, July 1). Noll, R.

G.; Zimbalist, A. May 9-July 27, 1972. 2 ). (2 ).

Congress. (Lloyd, 1999, 17) It is apparent from the Hyde hearings and other sources that there isa growing link between organized crime and college athletics on two levels:1) attempted player bribery, and, 2) recruitment of college students to actas "bookies" taking illegal bets for the mob. Hearings.

The authors of Eight MenOut (2 ) state: The Black Sox scandal of 1919 started out as a few gamblers trying to get rich, and turned into one of the biggest, and easily the darkest, event in baseball history. (Saum, 1999, 1) In fact, the legalized gambling industry has emerged as aninfluential and problematic divisive force in American politics, pittingRepublican against Democrat, State Government against Federal Government, local government against state government. However, gambling onamateur sports events is the tip of the iceberg (Noll & Zimbalist, 1997).

That study revealedthat athletes were nearly twice as likely to be problem gamblers than non-athletes. How big a part did people play? As the Hyde commission pointed out, the typical college student whogambles is certain he has control of his own destiny, is certain that heknows how to determine and calculate risks, and feels he possesses theskill to be successful in this endeavor.

In the introduction of this paper, a range of 8 billion to 38 billion was mentioned as the scope of illegal sports gambling. Eight Men Out:The Black Sox and the1919 World Series, New York: Henry Holt Byrne, B.

This isespecially true now that the Internet has become such an inviting place togamble, especially for college students still too young to go into regularcasinos, and who do not have access to the campus bookie. Hyde (R, Ill).

Everycampus has student bookies and the NCAA has seen an increase in theinvolvement of organized crime in sports wagering. Organized Crime, New York: Wadsworth Pub. House. Americans wager more than 6 billion annually in legal gambling operations -- at least 1 billion more than they spend for food, according to industry figures and data from the Department of Commerce.

The HR 3575 bill that was discussed by Hyde and his witnesses wantedto place a ban on gambling on all collegiate, Olympic or Amateur sports. That is a noble idea, but placing a ban on gambling will simply make iteasier for organized crime to continue its activities. Saum, W. S. References Abadinsky, H.

Can it Be Controlled? This paper willanalyze the situation of organized crime in sports by discussing: A) TheScope of the problem; B) History; C) Organized Crime control; D) Can it beControlled? Most evidence points to the involvement of Organized Crime'sinvolvement in this situation, but, contrary to popular belief, theorganized crime is not just Italian, but includes French gangs, Russiangangs, German gangs, Japanese Gangs and Chinese gangs. The godfathers go global: Organized crimehas become an international operation, as has the law enforcement effortsto combat it, New Statesman, 17 Marshall G; Rudd, M.

R. This observation is confirmed by Lloyd (1999) who states that the: Chinese Triad, Russian criminal organizations, Colombian cartels, Japanese yakuza, Sicilian Mafia as well as other Italian groups such as the Neapolitan Camorra, 'Ndrangheta and the Sacra corona Unita, Nigerian criminal organizations and Turkish drug-trafficking groups engage in extensive criminal activities on a regional, and often global, basis. Organized Crime The threat of organized crime is quite real, but many authors (andsometimes even the government) still tend to think of organized crime assimply an "Italian Mafia" thing, when, in fact, it is much more pervasive. Testimony in the Hyde hearing referred to at the beginning of this papersuggests that the problem of gambling and attempting to create "fixes" iscurrently, or has been attributable to a number of ethnic crime gangsoperating in the United States.

. Nevada has 142 legal sports books that allowwagering on professional and amateur sports while Oregon's program isconnected with its Lottery and only allows gambling on pro football gameswithout the spread. As this noted authorand expert on organized crime points out: Whether gambling is a legitimate business that should be encouraged, or an insidious cancer that must be controlled, is a question that has provoked internal splits among Republicans and Democrats. (1997). "Ironically, these are many ofthe same qualities of successful college athletes and may explain why someare drawn to sports gambling. testimony in United States House, Organized Crime in Sports.

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