Nothing

Sample essay topic, essay writing: Nothing - 387 words

Nose - external nares - nostrils divided by nasal septum - internal nares - opening to nasopharynx- hard palate - separates oral/nasal cavities - soft palate - posterior to hard palate - nasal conchae- projections of nasal cavity that cause turbulence in airflow - effects on humidity temp, filtration, olfactory sense - cilia - sweap mucous and trapped particles into pharynxPharynx - shared chamber- respiratory and digestive nasopharynx, oropharynx, and larynopharynxLarynx - epiglottis - prevents food from entering the glottis - thyroid cartilage- adams apple - ericoid cartilage - posterior support-both protect aboveSound - False vc - protect elastic true vocal cordsPitch - length, width, and tensionVolume - force of airAomplification and resonance within pharynx, oral and nasal cavities and sinusesWords - formed by tongue, lips, and cheeksTrachea - windpipe is tough flexible tube supported by 20 trached cart. (C shaped rings open to esophagus)Bronchi - primary secondary tertiary and quaternary and quaternaryBronchioles- sympathetic innervation controls constriction and dilation of bronchiolesAlveolar ducts open to alveolar sacs to alveoli made of simple squamous epith. 150 millionAlveolar macrophages - engulfing dust and particles - surfactant reduces surface tension within the alveoli to keep them inflated in exhalSquamous epith of a - basement mem - endoth capLungs - right 3 lobe left 2 lobe - apex superior, base on diaphram - mediastinal surf cardiac notchPleural Cavities - parietal pleura (covers rib cage) & visceral pleura (covers lungs) are continuous & separated by pleura - reduce frict. Step 1- pulmonary ventilation - air into and out Step 2- Gas diffusion across res membraneStep 3- Storage and transport of O and CO2Step 4- Exchange of O and CO2 between bloodPneumothorax- puncture of pleura lining Quiet breathing- inhalation contraction, ex passive - forced breathing - both inh exh activeTidal volume - amount of air in and out during one cycle - Expiratory reserve volume - voluntarily expelled at end of cycle - Inspiratory Reserve Volume - taken in above the tidal VVital Capacity=IRV+ERV+TVRV-raminaing air after ERV alveoli no collapseMV - air after pneumothoraxNitrogen 78.6% Oxygen 20.8% water vapor.5% CO2 .04%Parital pressure - porpotion of total atmosph pressDetermines rate of diffusionPN2+P02+PH20+PCO2=760mg98.5% of oxygen is bound to hemoglobin - lower O content of tissue, increased temp, and decreased pH the more O2 is released by Hb plasma transport - 7%hemoglobin binding - carbaminohemoglobin 23%carbonic acid ormation - sodium bicarbonate - NaHCO3 is formed in plasma 70%rate of cellular exchange=rate of capillary delivery and removal= rate of O2 asorption and CO2 excretionrespiratory rate= # breaths per min - medulla oblongata controlsRRC- insiratory center(active during quiet)- expiratory center(active only forced breathing).

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