Diabetes – Сustom Literature essay

Sample essay topic, essay writing: Diabetes - 271 words

Type 1 PathophysiologyStage 1: genetic predispositionStage 2: environmental triggers Spring and fall Epidemics of various viral diseasesStage 3: active autoimmunityICA's and insulin antibodies progressively decrease the effective circulating insulin levelStage 4: progressive beta cell destructionStage 5: overt diabetes mellitusType 2 PathophysiologyInsulin is a building (anabolic) hormone. w/o 3 metabolic problems occur Decreased glucose utilization Increased fat mobilization Increased protein utilizationDecreased Glucose UtilizationCells that require insulin as a carrier for glucose can take in only 25% of the glucose they require for fuelDo Not Require Insulin for Glucose Transport Require Insulin Nerve tissue Adipose tissue Erythrocytes Skeletal muscle Cells of intestines Cardiac muscle Liver Kidney tubulesInadequate amounts of insulin = levels of glucose riseElevation continues to rise b/c liver cannot store glucose as glycogen w/o sufficient insulin levelsReturn to homeostasis = kidney excretes excess glucose = urine acting as osmotic diuretic = increased water loss aka fluid volume deficit. Increased Fat MobilizationBody turns to fat stores for energy production when glucose unavailable Type 1 Type 2 w/severe stressFat metabolism causes breakdown products called ketonesKetones accumulate in the blood, are excreted through kidney & lungs, is measured in blood and urine. High levels = uncontrolled diabetesKetones interfere w/body's acid-base balance by producing hydrogen ionsDecreased pH = metabolic acidosisSodium follows excreted ketones = sodium depletion and further acidosisExcreted ketones also = increase in osmotic pressure = increased fluid lossB/c fats are primary source of energy body lipids increase to 5x normal = atherosclerosisIncreased Protein UtilizationProtein wasting = lack of insulinw/o insulin to stimulate protein synthesis, the balance is altered = catabolismamino acids are converted to glucose in the liver increasing glucose levelsuntreated = emanciated appearanceDiagnosis of DiabetesPhysical exam, medical history, labsLabs - Fasting Glucose >125 Casual Glucose >200 Postprandial >200 HbA1c C-peptide.

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