CHILD SEXUAL ABUSE. Research Papers, Essays, and Term Papers 1-800-351-0222 or 310-313-1265 Or Order On-Line! CHILD SEXUAL ABUSE. Term Paper ID:30104 Buy This Paper Essay Subject: Defines the abuse.... 12 Pages / 2700 Words 13 sources, 25 Citations, APA Format Rating 48.00 More Papers on This Topic Paper Abstract: Defines the abuse.
Effects on the victims of child sexual abuse by; short-term and long term. Complexity of psychological issues involved.
Negative effect on adult survivors. Issues of trauma, trust, fears. Their symptoms & high risk behavior.
Prevention of child sexual abuse & various approaches. Role that educators can play. Importance of therapy. Paper Introduction: Introduction Child sexual abuse refers to any sexual act or sexual contact between a child and an adult, or an older child. Apart from actual contact with the child, the exposure of the adult’s genitalia and pornographic materials to the child and the use of the child in pornographic materials can also be considered child sexual abuse.
In the U. S.
, approximately 150,000 to 200,000 new cases of sexual abuse are reported each year, although the actual number of cases is difficult to ascertain. In addition to young female victims, boys and male adolescents are also usual targets for sexual victimization (“Protecting Our Children,” 1998, p. 1888). The current estimates of child sexual abuse are approximately 25 percent among females, and ten percent among males (Lanning, Ballard, & Robinson, 1999, p.
3). Among boys, Schools have also implemented prevention program in the form oftraining for the staff and vivid presentations for students. Forexample, Cheasty, Clare and Collins (1998) have established a strongrelationship between a history of child sexual abuse and adult depression. Among the 237 participants, 49 (37 percent) depressed women and 24 (23percent) non-depressed women reported instances of sexual abuse duringtheir childhood. 648).
Prevention In order to prevent child sexual abuse, children need to be giveninformation about sexual abuse. Most of them are depressed and feel guiltyabout their abuse.
After six monthsof weekly therapy sessions, the levels of depression of both groupsdecreased equally. Pediatrics, 1 1, 62 -625.Hall, G.
Sexual offender recidivism revisited: A meta-analysis of recent treatment studies.
They also have low self-esteem. Child sexual abuse: Sensory recall... For this study,18 women were randomly divided into the two groups.
Researchers have also validated the fact that a history of child andadolescent sexual abuse can often lead to high-risk behaviors such as earlyand unprotected sexual intercourse, unplanned pregnancy, involvement in adomestically abusive relationships, along with alcohol and drug abuse(Boyar & Fine, 1992; Nagy, Diclemente, & Adcock, 1995). Society, 37(4), 18-24.
Children were also taught to go seek help from a "safe" person, often identified as the school counselor or teachers. Most importantly, it is important for professionals who work withadult survivors of childhood sexual abuse to understand that the trauma ofthe latter's experience has left them disempowered and estranged fromothers. Physical Therapy, 79(3), 248-276.Spiegel, D. Furthermore, parents and caregivers should let the children know that they are allowedto say "no" to adults who are touching them inappropriately and reportthese incidents to them.
Besides increasing the awarenessof children to sexual abuse, institutions also realize that adults in thecommunity should also learn how to prevent child sexual abuse. 18). However, the trauma-focused group experienced a greaterdecline in dissociation symptoms, while the present-focused group had agreater decrease in anxiety. Apart from providingtreatment programs for offenders, public agencies have also providedinformation to the rest of the community in order to increase awareness ofthis issue.
The Journal of the American Medical Association, 285(9), 1147.
Fiscella, K., Kitzman, H. J., Cole, R. E.
, Sidora, K. J.
, & Olds, D. 2 -1).
Essentially, the recovery process ofthe victims entails a collaborative effort between several groups ofindividuals including medical personnel, social workers, educators andparents (Lanning et al.
, 1999, p. Finally, they are likely to regress in other areasof their lives such as their academic and social performance at school("Protecting Our Children," 1998, p. Thus, they experience tremendous guilt because theyfeel that their negative experiences stem from their own behavior.
Furthermore, children often hide their sexual abuse because theirabusers threaten them ("Protecting Our Children," 1998, p. In addition to youngfemale victims, boys and male adolescents are also usual targets for sexualvictimization ("Protecting Our Children," 1998, p. Organizations such as theChild Sexual Abuse Prevention Programs (CSAPs) have been established toprevent child sexual abuse, detect early signs of abuse and minimize theadverse effects of child sexual abuse. Ultimately, theobjective of these campaigns is to highlight the seriousness of the issueof child sexual abuse and to bring organizations and institutions togetherin an effort to eradicate child sexual abuse.
However, it is important to note that all the women whohad experienced severe sexual abuse suffered from depression. Prevention of child sexual abuse victimization: A meta-analysis of school programs. The experiences of child sexual abuse can exert severe short-term and long-term effects on the victims' physical, mental and emotionalhealth and development (Inderbitzen-Pisaruk, Shawchuck, & Hoier, T.
S.,1992). 4). Furthermore, thesexual abuse also inhibited their ability to interact with intimatepartners and forge trusting relationships (pp.
Presenters also used puppets in programstargeted towards young children. Relation between sexual abuse in childhood and adult depression: Case-control study. In Vermont, public health agencies have launched the STOP IT NOW!
Campaign with three approaches: 1) A media campaign to increase the Vermontresidents' awareness of abuse and the symptoms of abuse; 2) An outreachprogram that focuses on high-risk families and offers a helpline for adultswho have questions about sexual abuse or treatment and need informationabout agencies involved in helping such families; and 3) A collaborativepartnership between Vermont's political and community leaders in order toformulate concerted strategies for preventing child sexual abuse. Therefore, based on this study, it is possiblethat both therapeutic approaches should be integrated in helping adultsurvivors of sexual abuse (in Bower, 1994, p. Because of their past trauma, these women feltextremely insecure about the safety of their children. Science News, 145(23), 365.
, & Fine, D. (1997). She loses her connection to her body when it is beingusurped by another human being.
Because children spend a lot of their time in schools, educators suchas teachers and counselors can also play a significant role in implementingchild sexual abuse prevention programs.
In their study of child abuseprevention programs in Texas Public Elementary Schools, Lanning and others(1999) identified the characteristics of these programs-their strengths andweaknesses.
In a pilot study that compares the effectiveness of the"trauma-focused" and "present-focused" group therapy for adult survivors ofchildhood sexual abuse, David Spiegel of Stanford University found thatboth approaches helped the participants in different ways. 16).
Recovery and Healing According to many research studies, the early discovery of childsexual abuse can be critical in the recovery and healing process for thechildren and their development into adulthood. The Journal of the American Medical Association, 28 (7), 648.
(2 1, March 7). In a recent studyon the relationship between child sexual abuse and adolescent pregnancy, Fiscella, Kitzman, Cole, Sidora and Olds (1998) reported that sexual abuseduring childhood was related to early adolescent sexual activity andpregnancy. 365). When a child is sexuallyabused, she becomes disempowered because she is no longer allowed to asserther needs and wants.
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